Energy Access Reports – July 2017

Networks and the Diffusion of Off-Grid Solar Technologies, Kartikeya Singh, Center for Strategic & International Studies

This case study builds on prior research examining what factors affect the ability of an off-grid solar firm to achieve scale in India by examining the most successful company in terms of unit sales. Through that extensive research of the off-grid market in India, it was revealed that GLP far outsold other companies in its class around 2015. One of the factors affecting its ability to scale is the fact that its products are modular and require little to no financing for the customers. This case study further reveals that the company’s main innovation is the business model, which relies on networks of sales agents operating under a system of sales targets, incentives and boosters. By shifting the responsibility of making sales to last-mile entrepreneurs, the company leverages its network to continuously move inventory off the shelf and into the hands of customers.

Solar power potential of Tanzania: Identifying CSP and PV hot spots through a GIS multicriteria decision making analysis, Ahmed Aly, Steen Solvang Jensen, Anders Branth Pedersen

This study investigates the spatial suitability for large-scale solar power installations in Tanzania through using Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis combined with Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique. The study identifies six exclusion criteria to mask unsuitable areas. Then the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to determine the weights of seven identified ranking criteria. A final technology-specific suitability map categorizes all the non-excluded areas into most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, and least suitable areas. The study also suggests four hot spots (i.e. specific recommended locations) for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) installations and four hot spots for Photovoltaics (PV) installations. The combined GIS-MCDM methodology presented in this paper is applicable to similar investigations in other regions and for evaluating the spatial suitability of other renewable energy technologies.

Decentralized Renewables: Empowering Women as Sustainable Energy Leaders, Power for All

This factsheet shows evidence for how energy poverty is not gender-neutral: women disproportionately bear the burden of energy poverty. Distributed renewable energy solutions can not only empower women economically and socially as end users, but the sector itself can significantly benefit by proactively integrating women across the value chain as designers, educators, trainers, managers, and entrepreneurs.

Global Kerosene Subsidies: An Obstacle to Energy Efficiency and Development, Evan Mills

Kerosene subsidies are slowing the progress of market and policy mechanisms already delivering more e?cient and less polluting energy systems that are also safer, more reliable, and more economical than kerosene in the long term.

The analysis developed in this article ?nds that kerosene is used in 173 countries, at a cost to consumers of $43.4B/y, $60.3B/y including direct economic subsidies, and $77.2B/y including certain externalities. Despite low world oil prices, direct economic subsidies for kerosene were $18.4B in 2013, and $34.7B including environmental externalities.

These values correspond to 72% and 56% of total kerosene costs being passed through to consumers, respectively. When excluding advanced economies, the pass-through values fall to 40% and 35%. Approximately 52% of the global kerosene supply receives direct subsidy, or 63% when externality costs are considered. The cooking end use receives $2.0B/y in direct kerosene subsidies, lighting $7.1B/y, and heating and other residual uses $9.3B/y, or $76 per over all households each year.

De?ning subsidies at this level of granularity is useful for pinpointing policy issues and opportunities. Promoting a transition to energy e?cient o?-grid energy services is one of the most cost-e?ective ways of reducing dependency on subsidies. Forty-?ve countries—many in the developing world—have priced kerosene such that there are no direct subsidies, and twenty-two have done so even when accounting for environmental externalities, suggesting the practice is economically and politically feasible.

Women, Energy, and Economic Empowerment, Deloitte

With a “gender lens” approach to energy access programs, the millions of dollars flowing to energy access initiatives around the globe can have a greater impact on women’s empowerment. This article, published in the Atlantic, explores the following: i) Under what context does gender equality rise with access to electricity; what are the channels through which this change occurs; and how significant are the economic benefits to women? Ii) Can donor institutions and governments reap more meaningful results by targeting energy development programs that enhance benefits for women, and if so, how?

Energy Recovery from Waste (EfW) factsheet, World Bioenergy Association

This factsheet is the 11th in a series of factsheets covering a wide range of bioenergy topics published by WBA. In the current factsheet, WBA promotes that managing of waste should follow the hierarchy structure – reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery with the last option of disposal. Efficient utilization of resources is the first step followed by energy recovery. Advantages of using an energy recovery from waste system are:

  • It reduces the volume of waste upto 96%.
  • Production of heat and electricity along with solid waste management.
  • Better sanitation, lower risk of contamination and diseases.
  • WtE facilities are designed for high emission control
  • It has climate change impact as producing energy from waste avoids potential emissions from landfilling

The energy recovery from waste sector faces certain key challenges. The cost of conversion and feedstock logistics are some of the challenges which have to be addressed. The challenges can be addressed via strong policies preventing dumping and incentivizing recycling and energy recovery. Proper information dissemination among the general public is another way of promoting the increasing use of the technology. Good data on global waste production and utilization is also another key challenge to be addressed.

Closing the governance gaps in the water-energy-food nexus: Insights from integrative governance, Nina Weitz, Claudia Strambo, Eric Kemp-Benedict, Måns Nilsson

The water-energy-food nexus has become a popular concept in environmental change research and policy debates. Proponents suggest that a nexus approach promotes policy coherence through identifying optimal policy mixes and governance arrangements across the water, energy and food sectors. Although the nexus literature identifies some barriers to achieving coherence it does not clearly explain why the barriers are present, what influences them, and how they can be acted upon. These gaps disconnect the nexus literature from the governance processes it ultimately seeks to influence.

This paper examines how the integrative environmental governance literature can help to close these gaps. It extracts insights from seven streams of research literature and discusses their relevance for the nexus literature and argues that connecting the nexus to decision-making processes requires: i) rethinking the boundaries of nexus analysis vis-à-vis other sectors and levels; ii) elaboration of shared principles that can guide decision-making towards policy coherence ? or an appropriate form of fragmentation ? in different contexts; iii) viewing policy coherence as a continuous process of changing values and perception rather than as an outcome.

Renewable Energy Statistics 2017, IEA

This yearbook shows data on renewable power-generation capacity, renewable power generation and renewable energy balances. The new yearbook also features statistics on investments in renewable energy from 18 major multi-lateral, bilateral and national development financial institutions. Download the full working paper here.