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New Reports – September 2016 | Energy Access Practitioner Network

News

New Reports – September 2016

Sustainable Energy for All Strategic Framework for Results 2016-21: Going Further, Faster – Together, Sustainable Energy for All

This Strategic Framework for Results (2016-21) aims to provide strategic direction to the Sustainable Energy for All platform and its partners that operate on a global basis. It focuses on how to move further, faster in the coming five years towards the delivery of SEforALL’s three 2030 objectives:

  • Ensure universal access to modern energy services.
  • Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency.
  • Double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.

It is framed in the context of agreements reached on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7) on energy and the Paris Agreement on climate change.

The Strategic Framework for Results was developed based on consultation with SEforALL’s partners and key stakeholders from the public and private sector, the United Nations, development banks and financiers, international and civil society organizations, and others engaged in energy sector development. It was presented for discussion by SEforALL’s Advisory Board, which is co-chaired by the UN Secretary-General and the President of the World Bank Group.

The SEforALL platform will be supported by SEforALL’s global team that is being established as a Quasi-International Organization headquartered in Vienna. A Business Plan will be developed for the global team to implement key elements of this Strategic Framework for Results. It will translate high-level actions to influence leaders toward specific outcomes and will be underpinned by a results framework. The global team’s work plans and resources will be aligned with the Business Plan, which will be developed in close consultation with SEforALL’s public, private and civil society partners. It will be reviewed and updated annually.


Toward Universal Access to Clean Cooking and Heating: Early Lessons from the East Asia and Pacific Clean Stove Initiative, the World Bank

The need for country-specific roadmaps, strong national support, well-targeted subsidies, as well as integration of local conditions and international best practices into stoves standards and testing protocols for accelerating the transition to clean cooking and heating solutions are the initial lessons learned from the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) Clean Stove Initiative (CSI). Furthermore, pilot results suggest that results-based financing is a promising way to incentivize the clean stoves market. This initiative included four country programs – China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, and Mongolia – and a cross-cutting regional program.


Finance for Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises in India: Sources and Challenges, ADB Institute

Finance for micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) has been a concern for all stakeholders including entrepreneurs, financial institutions, and government organizations. The key objective of the study was to identify various challenges faced by MSMEs in sourcing of finance during different stages of their life cycle.

This study is a first-of-its-kind attempt to focus on these aspects. The study further explores whether the financial awareness of MSME entrepreneurs is a major limitation in the identification and utilization of sources of finance. Data was collected through personal interviews, using a structured questionnaire, from a sample of 85 MSMEs.

The study found that the main challenges faced in underutilization of formal sources were inadequacy of collateral assets and lack of financial awareness of entrepreneurs. Based on the conclusion that requirement of finance differs with the life-cycle stage of the MSME, recommendations have been proposed for entrepreneurs, financial institutions, and policy makers.


Mobile for Development Utilities Feasibility Study – Assessing the opportunity for pay-as-you-go solar in Pakistan, GSMA

A critical enabler for PAYG solar is the uptake of mobile money services to unlock customers’ ability to make small payments through their mobile phones. The market for mobile money in Pakistan is growing as mobile money service providers are encouraging customers to shift their payment habits away from cash as well as over-the-counter transactions towards mobile wallet transactions, done directly through the mobile phone for improved ease of usage and better customer retention. The dynamic mobile money environment, with 10 million registered accounts as of 2015 and an objective to grow ten times, to 50 million, by 2025, speaks to the potential of PAYG solar in the country.

In the light of this opportunity, at the beginning of 2015, the GSMA Mobile for Development Utilities program (M4D Utilities), with the support of the UK Government, began working with Etisalat to explore the opportunity for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) to partner with energy service providers in the deployment of PAYG solar home systems to improve energy access in Pakistan, while growing their off-grid customer base. The findings demonstrate that, while the market for mobile-enabled PAYG solar is nascent in Pakistan, the conditions are favorable for its growth and a few actors are leading the way, exploring the potential for mobile technology to support the deployment of these off-grid solutions. GSMA’s main recommendations follow the findings.


Finance Guide for Policy-makers: Renewable Energy, Green Infrastructure – 2016 Update, Bloomberg, Chatham House, FS-UNEP Collaborating Centre

As a practical contribution, this guide provides a factual overview of the landscape of finance – sources of capital, what the capital markets do, how transactions work – and more broadly to set common finance terms in context.

The original guide was written was in 2009; since then evidence of climate change has continued to build, with successive temperature records broken. A substantive transition is now well under way in the energy sector and the economics of solutions such as renewable energy and energy efficiency have improved dramatically, and new low-carbon technologies are becoming ever more affordable.

This updated guide reflects changes in market conditions, financing structures and relevant policy debates. Topics covered include:

  • How finance generally works, with updated finance variables;
  • What the different parts of the finance sector do;
  • What issues financiers consider when investing, including the role of policy and regulation;
  • Capital markets and where, for example, ‘green bonds’ fit in – an expanded section;
  • The variables affecting finance decisions;
  • Energy efficiency – an expanded section, and an update on issues relating to emerging or developing-country markets;
  • A practical focus on ‘climate finance’, especially finance-sector-led initiatives that are accelerating actions at both the low- and high carbon end of the spectrum.

The starting point is an explanation of the financial institutions – what they do and how they make decisions – concentrating on those relevant to the more mature end of the renewable energy infrastructure market, using proven technologies that are being financed now and at scale.


Independent Power Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa – Lessons from Five Key Countries, the World Bank

This report draws on case studies carried out in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda – countries that have the most experience with IPPs in the region – to explain why independent power projects (IPPs) are crucial to help deliver electricity to the 600 million people without it in Sub-Saharan Africa. The report highlights the challenges policymakers face and factors that can lead to scaled-up and sustainable power sector investment.

Africa’s power sector needs far exceed most countries’ already stretched public finances, making it crucial for governments to attract greater levels of private investment to scale up generation capacity. To reach the scale required, governments must provide a sound investment climate and enabling environment, the report finds. 


 Next Generation Wind and Solar Power, International Energy Agency (IEA)

Wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) are currently the fastest-growing sources of electricity globally. A “next generation” phase of deployment is emerging, in which wind and solar PV are technologically mature and economically affordable.

As these variable renewables enter this next generation of deployment, the issue of system and market integration becomes a critical priority for renewables policy and energy policy more broadly. The paper highlights that this will require strategic action in three areas:

  • System-friendly deployment, aiming to maximize the net benefit of wind and solar power for the entire system.
  • Improved operating strategies, such as advanced renewable energy forecasting and enhanced scheduling of power plants.
  • Investment in additional flexible resources, comprising demand-side resources, electricity storage, grid infrastructure and flexible generation.

In addition, the paper argues that unlocking the contribution of system-friendly deployment calls for a paradigm shift in the economic assessment of wind and solar power. The traditional focus on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) – a measure of cost for a particular generating technology at the level of a power plant – is no longer sufficient. Next-generation approaches need to factor in the system value of electricity from wind and solar power – the overall benefit arising from the addition of a wind or solar power generation source to the power system. System value is determined by the interplay of positives and negatives including reduced fuel costs, reduced carbon dioxide and other pollutant emissions costs, or higher costs of additional grid infrastructure.


Renewable Energy Statistics 2016, IRENA

The 2016 Renewable Energy Statistics Yearbook shows data sets on renewable power-generation capacity for 2006-2015, renewable power generation for 2006-2014 and renewable energy balances for 100 countries and areas for 2013 and 2014. Further, it features statistics on investments in renewable energies from 18 major multi-lateral, bilateral and national development financial institutions presented for the period 2009-2014.

A summary of recent developments in renewable energy in the region can be found here.

The electricity generation and capacity datasets from the year 2000 onwards are also available for download on IRENA’s knowledge portal: http://resourceirena.irena.org.


Solar pumping for irrigation: Improving livelihoods and sustainability, IRENA

This policy brief touches on the important issue that is the water, energy and food nexus, which is the intrinsic linkage of energy which is required to access water that is needed to grow food. For developing countries where malnutrition is higher, access to water to grow food is a necessity, but the cost of fuel for irrigation can be prohibitive for many smallholder farmers. Being able to access water using the power of the sun is the perfect example of a ‘clean leap’ technology, using renewable energy instead of fossil fuels.

Some of the key highlights from the policy brief include:

  • 40% of people are employed in the agriculture sector worldwide, with many living in poverty. Increasing the productivity of farming by 10% increases socio-economic capacity by 7% in Africa and 5% in Asia. Irrigation is one such tool to increase output.
  • The majority of food is grown on land which is watered by rain – 95% in Africa and 60% in South East Asia. Using irrigation in these areas can increase the output and the productivity. Irrigated land total is only 20% but produces 40% of the food in the world.
  • Fossil fuel-based electricity and diesel generators are used to power the majority of irrigation pumps around the world, using annually the same amount of power as Singapore in a year – around 62 terawatt hours.
  • Using solar power as a replacement of fossil fuel based sources is more environmentally friendly and financially sustainable over a longer period of time. Implementing new solar-powered pumps in areas where there is no grid infrastructure provides a way for communities to grow their own food, where once they had no access to water to grow crops.

Job creation and energy savings through a transition to modern off-grid lighting, Evan Mills, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

A market transformation from inefficient and polluting fuel-based lighting to solar-LED systems is well underway across the developing world, but the extent of net job creation has not previously been defined. This article finds that current employment associated with fuel-based lighting represents approximately 150,000 jobs. New jobs will accompany the replacement technologies.

A survey of major solar-LED lighting companies finds that 38 such jobs are created for each 10,000 people living off-grid for whom stand-alone solar-LED lights are suitable. Applying this metric, the number of new jobs already created from the current uptake of solar-LED lighting has matched that of fuel-based lighting and foreshadows the potential creation of 2 million new jobs to fully serve the 112 million households globally that currently lack electricity access, are unlikely to be connected to the major grid, micro-grids, or are able to afford more extensive solar systems. A likely greater number of additional jobs and employment income will be indirectly created or preserved via indirect employment, re-spending of energy savings, conservation of foreign exchange, enhanced literacy, and improved working conditions.

In contrast, central grid expansion is unlikely to provide any net increase in jobs. The case of solar-LED lighting demonstrates that policymakers have tools to increase the pace of in-country job creation in the context of sustainable development, while minimizing job displacement, and improving the quality of employment. These tools include stimuli for domestic manufacturing or assembly of products; supporting peripheral businesses and services, such as training, recycling, financing, and impact assessment; and removing market barriers that slow the uptake of emerging technologies.


Cost and Returns of Renewable Energy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparison of Kenya and Ghana, IDS

This publication calculates the levelized cost of energy and the internal rate of return for a portfolio of renewable energy technologies, under different scenarios, for Kenya and Ghana. Based on these calculations, Kenya showed better fundamentals for successful implementation of renewable energy projects. For Ghana, renewable energy sources (except hydro) are expensive and offer low returns, mainly due to high financing costs and lower-quality renewable resources. The publication also highlights the role of public-private partnerships to improve the financial performance of renewable energy in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Smart Power for Rural Development: Creating a Sustainable Market Solution to Energy Poverty, Shared Value Initiative

The Rockefeller Foundation is supporting Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) such as OMC, DESI Power, Tara Urja, and others to create shared value through its Smart Power for Rural Development Initiative. Shared value is a management approach that enables companies to increase profits, reduce costs, and enhance competitiveness by solving social problems, such as limited access to electricity.

Rockefeller’s Smart Power for Rural Development initiative provides affordable financing to ESCOs and links them to an ecosystem of Rockefeller grant-funded partners, which provide project and business development support as well as policy and regulatory recommendations. Rockefeller’s partners are coordinated by Smart Power India, a Rockefeller-incubated entity and wholly-owned subsidiary. The Foundation set an ambitious target to reach 1000 villages within the first three years of the initiative, with a goal of building a viable market quickly and spurring interest, action, and innovation among key players in the ecosystem. This case study outlines the findings and progress of the initiative to date.